Ronda is one of the oldest cities of Spain. According to archeological findings the presence of human beings in the municipality goes back to the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages. Testimonies of these epochs are the Dolmens of El Chopo and Encinas borrachas and the cave paintings in Pileta´s cave, among others.
The most important human settlements date from Celtic and Roman epochs. Under the former the city was called Arunda and under the latter Acinipo.
From the Roman Empire in the Spanish peninsula can still be seen many remains in the region, with important the ones found in the same city of Ronda, due to of the good state of conservation. During the Moorish occupation Ronda is one of the leading cities of Al-Andalus and later an important border city next to the Nazari Kingdom of Granada.
After the victory of the catholic Kings over the Muslims in 1485, the structure of the city suffered important changes, creating open squares, broader streets and replacing the antique Mosques with Churches. During the 18th century where built the most relevant and known monuments of the city: The new Bridge and the Bullring.
From the 19th century grows the romantic image of the city with its surrounding Serrania (Mountain ranges) and the emerging bandits in the area, which creates together with the art of bullfighting a deep impression on many famous travelers like Hemingway, Orson Welles and Rilke.
The historic city can be divided into three areas: The neighborhood of San Francisco, Puerta de Almocábar and Puerta de Carlos I.
In the city there can be visited a great amount of monuments as for instance the Mondragon Palace, the headquarters of the Kings from both Muslims and Christians; La Casa del Gigante, of Arab origin; the Palace of Salvatierra: Through its gardens you can access the descent to the Mine that goes down to the bottom of the Tagus the Arab baths and the famous new Bridge of the 18th century.
The bull ring from the 18th century is the oldest in Spain, and Martín de Aldehuela, the Architect of the New Bridge, also is responsible of this work. The Church Santa María la Mayor (15th to 18th Century) is the former mosque. The fountain of the Ocho Caños, from the period of Carlos III, is close to the old Arabic bridge over the Tagus.