Located among olive groves on the banks of the River Genil, near the province of Cordoba. Its name comes from the abundance of caves (cuevas) to be found in the area.
The village's main place of interest is St. John's Church.
The exact period in which the village was founded is unclear, though the numerous natural caves to be found within its boundaries suggest that the area may have been inhabited since prehistoric times.
The abundant Roman remains found in and around the village point to its foundation in this era.
Evidence exists of Arabic settlements around a fortress which was destroyed in 1424 by Pedro de Narvaez, son of Don Rodrigo, the first Mayor of Antequera, acting on behalf of King John II of Castile.
A royal decree signed in Bobadilla de la Sierra on 5 April 1440 saw the village fall under the jurisdiction of the town of Antequera.
Following a number of lawsuits brought by the inhabitants of Cuevas Bajas, the village finally won the right to its own jurisdiction on 7 August 1818 via a decree signed by King Ferdinand VII.